World War I Casualties - Footnotes

Footnotes

^a The conflict in East Africa caused enormous civilian casualties. The Oxford History of World War One notes that "In east and central Africa the harshness of the war resulted in acute shortages of food with famine in some areas, a weakening of populations, and epidemic diseases which killed hundreds of thousands of people and also cattle." The following estimates of civilian deaths during World War I were made by a Russian journalist in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century: Kenya 30,000; Tanzania 100,000; Mozambique 50,000; Rwanda 15,000; Burundi 20,000; and the Belgian Congo 150,000.

The reported military casualties of the UK, France, Germany, Belgium, and Portugal include Africans who served with their armed forces. The details are noted in the footnotes of the various nations.

^b Australia Included in total military deaths are 54,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2009-2010 is the source of the total 61,966 military dead. The 'Debt of Honour Register' lists the 1.7 million men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars. The 1922 War Office report listed 59,330 Army war dead.

^c Belgium: The total Includes 35,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds Official Belgian government figures for military losses in Europe were 26,338 killed, died of wounds or accidents and 14,029 died of disease or missing. The total in Europe is 40,367. In Africa: 2,620 soldiers killed and 15,560 porter deaths, for a total in the African campaign of 18,270. The combined total for Europe and Africa is 58,637 Another estimate (by the UK War Office in 1922) was 13,716 killed and 24,456 missing up until November 11, 1918. "These figures are approximate only, the records being incomplete." The U.S. War Department in 1924 estimated 13,716 killed and died US War Dept 1924
Civilian deaths exceeded the prewar level by 92,000. 62,000 were caused by food shortages and German reprisals, and 30,000 by the Spanish Flu Prof. John Horne estimated that 6,500 Belgian and French civilians were killed in German reprisals.

^d Canada The total military deaths includes 53,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2009-2010 gives a total of 64,976 military dead. Includes 1,297 dead in the Royal Newfoundland Regiment. The Canadian Virtual War Memorial contains a registry of information about the graves and memorials of Canadians and Newfoundlanders who served valiantly and gave their lives for their country. The losses for Newfoundland are listed separately on this table because it was not part of Canada at that time, but are included in the CVWM registry. The 1922 War Office report listed 56,639 Army war dead Civilian deaths were due to the Halifax Explosion

^e France The total includes 1,186,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds The figure for total military dead of 1,397,800 is from a study published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in 1931 The total includes 71,100 French Colonial Forces, 4,600 foreign nationals, and 28,600 war-related military deaths occurring from 11/11/18 to 6/1/1919 The UK War Office in 1922 estimated French losses as 1,385,300 dead and missing, including 58,000 colonial soldiers The U.S. War Department in 1924 estimated 1,357,800 killed and died The names of the soldiers who died for France during World War I are listed on-line by the French government. The French encyclopedia Quid reports that 30-40,000 foreign volunteers from about 40 nationalities served in the French army. At the end of the war 12,000 were in the Czechoslovak Legions and the ethnic Polish Blue Army. 5,000 Italians served in a "Legion" commanded by Colonel Garibaldi. There were also 1,000 Spaniards and 1,500 Swiss in French service. 200 American volunteers served with the French from 1914–16, including the Lafayette Escadrille Luxembourg was occupied by Germany during the war. 3,700 Luxembourg citizens served in the French armed forces. 2,800 gave their lives in the war. They are commemorated at the Gëlle Fra in Luxembourg. The French Armenian Legion served as part of the French Armed forces during the war.
Civilian deaths exceeded the prewar level by 500,000. 300,000 were caused by military operations and food shortages, and 200,000 by the Spanish Flu Another estimate of the demographic loss of the civilian population in the France during the war put total excess deaths at 264,000 to 284,000 not including an additional 100,000 to 120,000 Spanish Flu deaths. Civilian dead include 1,509 merchant sailors and 3,357 killed in air attacks and long range artillery bombardments The French government did not provide an estimate of civilian deaths in the war zone, however tertiary sources have estimated civilian war dead at 40,000.

^f Greece Included in total are 11,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds The Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated total military dead of 26,000 including 15,000 deaths due to disease Jean Bujac in a campaign history of the Greek Army in World War I listed 8,365 combat related deaths and 3,255 missing Other estimates of Greek casualties are as follows: By UK War Office in 1922: Killed/died wounds 5,000; prisoners and missing 1,000. By US War Dept in 1924: killed and died 5,000
Civilian deaths exceeded the prewar level by 150,000, caused by food shortages and the Spanish Flu

^g Indian EmpireThe Indian Empire included present day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Included in total military deaths are 27,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds. The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2009-2010 is the source of the total 74,187 military dead. The 'Debt of Honour Register' lists the 1.7 million men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars. The 1922 War Office report listed 62,056 Indian Army war dead and 2,393 British serving in the Indian Army.

^h Italy Included in total are 433,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds The figure 651,000 military dead is from a 1925 Italian demographic study of war deaths based on official government data published by Yale Univ. Press. The details are as follows, Killed in action or died of wounds 378,000; died of disease 186,000 and an additional 87,000 deaths of invalids from 12 Nov. 1918 until 30 April 1920 due to war related injuries. Other estimates of Italian casualties were: by UK War Office in 1922, Dead 460,000 and by the US War Dept in 1924 650,000 killed and died Civilian deaths exceeded the prewar level by 1,021,000. 589,000 caused by food shortages and 432,000 by the Spanish Flu Another estimate of the demographic loss of the civilian population in the Italy during the war put total excess deaths at 324,000 not including an additional 300,000 Spanish Flu deaths. Civilian deaths due to military action were about 3,400 including 2,293 by attacks on shipping, 958 during air raids and 142 by sea bombardment.

^i Japan War dead figure of 415 is from a 1991 history of the Japanese Army However, Michael Clodfelter reported the official toll was put at 300 KIA and noted that "A more reliable count of total Japanese military deaths from all causes lists 1,344 fatalities. Casualties reported by the US War Dept in 1924 were 300 killed and died

^j Luxembourg remained under German control during the war. Some citizens were conscripted into the German forces. Others escaped to volunteer for the Allies.31 3,700 Luxembourgian nationals served in the French Army, of whom 2,000 died. They are commemorated at the Gëlle Fra in Luxembourg.

^k Montenegro: Michael Clodfelter lists 3,000 battle deaths and 7,000 missing and POW. However, the Yugoslav government in 1924 listed 13,325 military war dead from Montenegro. Casualties Reported by the US War Dept in 1924 were 3,000 killed and died

^l New Zealand: Included in total military deaths are 14,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2009-2010 is the source of the total 18,052 military dead The 'Debt of Honour Register' lists the 1.7 million men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars. The 1922 War Office report listed 16,711 Army war dead.

^m Newfoundland was a separate dominion at the time, and not part of Canada.The 1922 War Office report listed 1,204 Army war dead. Currently the Commonwealth War Graves Commission includes Newfoundland’s casualties with Canada and the U.K. An academic journal published in Newfoundland has given the details of Newfoundland’s military casualties. Fatalities totaled 1,570 The Royal Newfoundland Regiment suffered 1,297 dead; there were an additional 171 dead in the Royal Navy and 101 in the Merchant Navy

^n Portugal: Included in total are 6,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds Total war dead reported by British War Office were 7,022 including the following: killed and died of other causes up until January 1, 1920; 1,689 in France and 5,333 in Africa. Figures do not include an additional 12,318 listed as missing and POW. Africans are included in these figures Another estimate of Portuguese casualties by the US War Dept in 1924 was 7,222 killed and died Civilian deaths exceeded the prewar level by 220,000, 82,000 caused by food shortages and 138,000 by the Spanish Flu

^o Romania: Included in total are 177,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds The statistic of 250,000 military dead is "The figure reported by the Rumanian Government in reply to a questionnaire from the International Labour Office Other estimates of Romanian casualties are as follows: By UK War Office in 1922: 335,706 Killed and missing By US War Dept in 1924: 335,706 killed and died
Civilian deaths exceeded the prewar level by 430,000, caused by military action,food shortages, epidemics and the Spanish Flu A Russian journalist in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century estimated 120,000 Romanian civilian deaths due to military activity,10,000 in Austro-Hungarian prisons and 200,000 caused by famine and disease

^p Russian Empire The sources for Russian casualties are difficult to actertain according to the Russian demographer Boris Urlanis. Casualty figures based on official reports during the war were published in 1925 by the Soviet Central Statistical office, they put Russia's casualties at 7,036,087. (626,440 killed in action, 17,174 died of wounds, 3,638,271 missing or held as prisoners of war and 2,754,202 wounded.) Urlanis believes that the official figures for those killed were considerably underestimated because a large part of the reports were lost in retreats. Urlanis estimated the actual total military war dead at 1,811,000. (Killed or missing in action 1,200,000; died of wounds 240,000, gassed 11,000., died from disease 155,000, POW deaths 190,000, deaths due to accidents and other causes.15,000. A 2001 study by the Russian military historian G.F. Krivosheev estimated the total war dead at 2,254,369 (Killed in action 1,200,000; missing and presumed dead 439,369; died of wounds 240,000, gassed 11,000., died from disease 155,000, POW deaths 190,000, deaths due to accidents and other causes.19,000.) Wounded 3,749,000. POW 2,384,000.
Other estimates of Russian casualties are as follows: By UK War Office in 1922: Killed 1,700,000 By the US War Dept in 1924 1,700,000 killed and died.
Civilian deaths in the 1914 borders exceeded the prewar level by 1,500,000 due to famine and disease and military operations . Civilian deaths in the post war borders,not including Poland, exceeded the prewar level by 1,070,000 (730,000 famine and disease and 340,000 military operations) .

^q Kingdom of Serbia Included in total are 165,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds The estimate of total combined Serbian and Montenegrin military losses of 278,000 was made by the Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis. Other estimates of Serbian casualties are as follows: By Yugoslav government in 1924: Killed 365,164 . By UK War Office in 1922: Killed 45,000, missing . By US War Dept in 1924: 45,000 killed and died Civilian deaths exceeded the prewar level by 450,000, due to military activity, food shortages, epidemics and the Spanish Flu A Russian journalist in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century estimated 120,000 Serbian civilian deaths due to military activity and 30,000 in Austro-Hungarian prisons.

^r South Africa Included in military dead total are 5,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2009-2010 is the source of the 9,477 total military dead.
The 1922 War Office report listed 7,121 Army war dead

^s UK and Colonies Included in total military dead are 624,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds. The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2009-2010 is the source of total 886,939 UK military dead(including Newfoundland) the 'Debt of Honour Register' lists the 1.7m men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars. The losses of Newfoundland are listed separately on this table.
The official "final and corrected" casualty figures for British Army,including the Territorial Force were issued on 10 March 1921. The losses were for the period 4 August 1914 until 30 September 1919, included 573,507 "killed in action, died from wounds and died of other causes"; 254,176 missing less 154,308 released prisoners; for a net total of 673,375 dead and missing. There were 1,643,469 wounded also listed in the report
The 1922 War Office report detailed the casualties of "soldiers who lost their lives", "killed in action, died as prisoners, died of wounds and missing" from the Regular and Territorial Forces and Royal Naval Division: 702,410 from the UK, 507 from "other colonies" and 2,393 British serving in the Indian Empire Army. The figures include Royal Navy war dead of 32,287 The Merchant Navy war dead of 14,661 were listed separately Figures for total RAF are included in the totals of the War Office report
Civilian deaths exceeded the prewar level by 292,000. 109,000 due to food shortages and 183,577 by the Spanish Flu
Another estimate of the demographic loss of the civilian population in the UK during the war put total excess deaths at 181,000 not including an additional 100,000 Spanish Flu deaths. The 1922 War Office report detailed the deaths of 1,260 civilians and 310 military personnel due to air and sea bombardment of the UK Losses at sea were 908 UK civilians and 63 fisherman killed by U-Boat attacks

^t United States The official figures of military war deaths listed by the US Dept. of Defense for the period ending Dec. 31, 1918 are 116,516; which includes 53,402 battle deaths and 63,114 non combat deaths., The US Coast Guard lost an additional 192 dead.."
United States estimated civilian losses include 128 killed on the RMS Lusitania as well as 629 Merchant Marine personnel killed on merchant ships.

^u Austria-Hungary Included in total are 900,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds. The figure of total estimated 1,100,000 military dead is from a study published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in 1940, based on analysis of Austro-Hungarian War Dept. data. Other estimates of Austro-Hungarian casualties are as follows: By Austrian Ministry of Defense in 1938: Military dead 1,016,200 By UK War Office in 1922: Dead 1,200,00 By US War Dept in 1924: 1,200,00 killed and died
A study published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in 1940 estimated civilian 467,000 deaths "attributable to war", the primary cause being famine. A Russian journalist in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century estimated 120,000 civilian deaths due to military activity in Austro-Hungarian Galicia.

^v Bulgaria: Included in total are 62,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds. 87,500 total military war dead were reported by the Bulgarian War Office including 48,917 killed, 13,198 died of wounds, 888 accidentally killed, 24,497 died of disease, "losses during the retreat from sickness and privations were much greater than the figures they possess The US War Dept in 1924 also listed 87,500 killed and died
Civilian deaths exceeded the prewar level by 100,000. due to food shortages.

^w German Empire Included in total are 1,796,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds. The official German medical war history listed 2,036,897 military war dead. Including confirmed military dead from all causes: Army 1,900,876, Navy 34,836 ,Colonial troops 1,185 and an estimated 100,000 missing and presumed dead -To these figures we must add an additional 14,000 African conscript deaths during the war. Total dead 2,050,89 -Other estimates of German casualties are as follows: By UK War Office in 1922: Killed 1,808,545 exclusive of 14,000 African conscript deaths during the war By US War Dept in 1924: 1,773,700 killed and died . 720 German civilians were killed by allied air raids
Civilian deaths caused by the Blockade of Germany
German official statistics estimated 763,000 civilian malnutrition and disease deaths were caused by the blockade of Germany. This figure was disputed by a subsequent academic study that put the death toll at 424,000.,
In December 1918 the German government estimated that the blockade was responsible for the deaths of 762,796 civilians, this figure did not include deaths due to the Spanish flu epidemic in 1918. The figures for the last six months of 1918 were estimated. Maurice Parmelle maintained that "it is very far from accurate to attribute to the blockade all of the excess deaths above pre-war mortality", he believed that the German figures were "somewhat exaggerated". The German claims were made at the time when Germany was waging a propaganda campaign to end the Allied blockade of Germany after the armistice that lasted from November 1918 until June 1919. Also in 1919 Germany raised the issue of the Allied blockade to counter charges against the German use of submarine warfare.
In 1928 a German academic study sponsored by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace provided a thorough analysis of the German civilian deaths during the war. The study estimated 424,000 war related deaths of civilians over age 1 in Germany, not including Alsace-Lorraine, the authors attributed these civilian deaths over the pre war level primarily to food and fuel shortages in 1917-1918. The study also estimated an additional 209,000 Spanish flu deaths in 1918 A study sponsored by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in 1940 estimated the German civilian death toll at over 600,000. Based on the above mentioned German study of 1928 they maintained that “A thorough inquiry has led to the conclusion that the number of “civilian” deaths traceable to the war was 424,000, to which number must be added about 200,000 deaths caused by the influenza epidemic”
Not included in the figure of 763,000 famine deaths are additional civilian deaths during the blockade of Germany after the armistice from November 1918 until June 1919. Dr. Max Rubner in an April 1919 article claimed that 100,000 German civilians had died due to the continuation blockade of Germany after the armistice. In the UK a Labour Party anti-war activist Robert Smillie isuued a statement in June 1919 condeming the continuation blockade in which he also claimed that 100,000 German civilians had died.

^x Ottoman Empire: Ottoman military casualties listed here are from data derived from the Ottoman Archives which total 771,844 war dead including 243,598 killed in action, 61,487 missing action and 466,759 deaths due to disease. The number of wounded was 763,753 and POWs 145,104 Other estimates of Ottoman military casualties are as follows: By UK War Office in 1922: Killed 50,000, died wounds 35,000, died of disease 240,000 By US War Dept in 1924: 325,000 killed and died.
Estimates of Ottoman civilian casualties range from 2,000,000 to 2,150,000. Civilian casualties include the Armenian Genocide, and it is debated if this event should be included with war losses. The total number of resulting Armenian deaths is generally held to have been between 1 million and 1.5 million. Other ethnic groups were similarly attacked by the Ottoman Empire during this period, including Assyrians and Greeks, and some scholars consider those events to be part of the same policy of extermination. Total Ottoman population losses from 1914–1922 were approximately 5 million including the Spanish flu deaths, the Turkish War of Independence from 1919–1922 and the Population exchange between Greece and Turkey, these other population losses are not included with the casualties of World War I.

^y Denmark was neutral in the war. However, Germany at that time included part of Danish Schleswig. 30,000 men from this area served in German forces, and 3,900 were killed. These losses are included with German casualties. 722 Danish merchant sailors and fisherman died, mostly due to vessels torpedoed by German submarines

^z Norway and Sweden were both neutral in the war. They both lost ships and merchant sailors in trading through the war zones. Norway lost about 50% of its merchant fleet, percentage-wise the highest loss of any nation's merchant fleet in World War I. 1,892 Norwegian merchant sailors died, mostly due to vessels torpedoed by German submarines. 877 Swedish merchant sailors died, mostly due to vessels torpedoed or sunk by mines.

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