According to evolutionary medicine, much illness is not directly caused by an infection or body dysfunction but is instead a response created by the body. Fever, for example, is not caused directly by bacteria or viruses but by the body raising its normal human body temperature, which some people believe inhibits the growth of the infectious organism. Evolutionary medicine calls this set of responses sickness behavior. These include such illness defining health changes as lethargy, depression, anorexia, sleepiness, hyperalgesia, and the inability to concentrate. These together with fever are caused by the brain through its top down control upon the body. They are, therefore, not necessary, and often do not accompany an infection (such as the lack of fever during malnutrition or late pregnancy) when they have a cost that outweighs their benefit. In humans, an important factor are beliefs that influence whether the health management system in the brain that evaluates costs and benefits deploys them or not. The health management system, when it factors in false information, has been suggested to underlie the placebo reduction of illness.
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Other articles related to "adaptive response, response, adaptive":
The adaptive response is a form of direct DNA repair in E. coli that is initiated against alkylation, particularly methylation, of guanine or thymine nucleotides or phosphate groups on the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA. Under sustained exposure to low-level treatment with alkylating mutagens, E. coli can adapt to the presence of the mutagen, rendering subsequent treatment with high doses of the same agent less effective.
The adaptive response is mediated by the ada protein (a part of the Ada regulon), which covalently transfers alkyl groups from the damaged DNA to one of its two cysteine residues, rendering the protein enzymatically dead. It is thus a "suicide" protein that reacts stoichiometrically rather than catalytically. Methylated ada acts as a transcription factor to initiate the adaptive response, promoting the expression of related genes such as alkA, alkB, aidB, and ada itself. The alkA gene product is a glycosylase, the aidB product is a flavin-containing protein, and alkB is an iron-dependent oxidoreductase; all are involved in further DNA repairs of alkylation damage.
... The adaptive response is manifested as the induction of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes ... Evidence of this response was first observed from the induction of cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (Cyp1a1) resultant from TCDD exposure, which was ...
... In addition, OT’s provide adaptive devices such as cuffs and loops (to help the individual hold their utensils), large handled utensils that are easier to grasp, and cups with lids to assist with eating and ... In general, all of these therapeutic methods are aimed at improving the quality of the swallowing response and general eating performance ... OTs are also involved in educating families on various adaptive devices that can promote comfort, ease of use, and safety for children and their caregivers ...
Famous quotes containing the words response and/or adaptive:
“I am accustomed to think very long of going anywhere,am slow to move. I hope to hear a response of the oracle first.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)
“The shift from the perception of the child as innocent to the perception of the child as competent has greatly increased the demands on contemporary children for maturity, for participating in competitive sports, for early academic achievement, and for protecting themselves against adults who might do them harm. While children might be able to cope with any one of those demands taken singly, taken together they often exceed childrens adaptive capacity.”
—David Elkind (20th century)