Black Hole - Properties and Structure

Properties and Structure

The no-hair theorem states that, once it achieves a stable condition after formation, a black hole has only three independent physical properties: mass, charge, and angular momentum. Any two black holes that share the same values for these properties, or parameters, are indistinguishable according to classical (i.e. non-quantum) mechanics.

These properties are special because they are visible from outside a black hole. For example, a charged black hole repels other like charges just like any other charged object. Similarly, the total mass inside a sphere containing a black hole can be found by using the gravitational analog of Gauss's law, the ADM mass, far away from the black hole. Likewise, the angular momentum can be measured from far away using frame dragging by the gravitomagnetic field.

When an object falls into a black hole, any information about the shape of the object or distribution of charge on it is evenly distributed along the horizon of the black hole, and is lost to outside observers. The behavior of the horizon in this situation is a dissipative system that is closely analogous to that of a conductive stretchy membrane with friction and electrical resistance—the membrane paradigm. This is different from other field theories like electromagnetism, which do not have any friction or resistivity at the microscopic level, because they are time-reversible. Because a black hole eventually achieves a stable state with only three parameters, there is no way to avoid losing information about the initial conditions: the gravitational and electric fields of a black hole give very little information about what went in. The information that is lost includes every quantity that cannot be measured far away from the black hole horizon, including approximately conserved quantum numbers such as the total baryon number and lepton number. This behavior is so puzzling that it has been called the black hole information loss paradox.

Read more about this topic:  Black Hole

Other articles related to "properties, properties and structure, structure":

Zamak 7
0.02 - - - †Impurity ‡Alloying element Zamak 7 properties Property Metric value English value Mechanical properties Ultimate tensile strength 285 MPa 41,300 psi Yield strength (0.2% offset) 285 MPa 41,300 ...
Geophysics - Physical Phenomena - Mineral Physics
... Further information Mineral physics The physical properties of minerals must be understood to infer the composition of the Earth's interior from seismology, the geothermal gradient and other ... Mineral physicists study the elastic properties of minerals their high-pressure phase diagrams, melting points and equations of state at high pressure and the rheological properties of rocks, or ... Water is a very complex substance and its unique properties are essential for life ...
Kiawah Island, South Carolina - Real Estate Market
... Many of the Kiawah Island properties are located directly on the beach or just a short distance away, and there are numerous golf course properties ...
Ammonia Borane - Properties and Structure
... The molecule adopts a structure like ethane, which it is isoelectronic with ... The structure of the solid indicates a close association of the NH and the BH centers ... The updated structure was arrived at with improved data using the technique of neutron diffraction that allowed the hydrogen atoms to be located with greater precision ...

Famous quotes containing the words structure and/or properties:

    The philosopher believes that the value of his philosophy lies in its totality, in its structure: posterity discovers it in the stones with which he built and with which other structures are subsequently built that are frequently better—and so, in the fact that that structure can be demolished and yet still possess value as material.
    Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900)

    The reason why men enter into society, is the preservation of their property; and the end why they choose and authorize a legislative, is, that there may be laws made, and rules set, as guards and fences to the properties of all the members of the society: to limit the power, and moderate the dominion, of every part and member of the society.
    John Locke (1632–1704)