Transport in Buckinghamshire has been shaped by its position within the United Kingdom. Most routes between the UK's two largest cities, London and Birmingham, pass through this county. The county's growing industry (such as in Slough) first brought canals to the area, then railways and then motorways.
Much of Buckinghamshire's transport network can be traced to two ancient roads, the Roman Akeman Street and the Celtic Watling Street. The A41 and A5 roughly follow their paths. In 1838, Buckinghamshire became one of the first counties in England to gain railways, with sections of both the West Coast Main Line and Great Western Main Line opening. These were later followed by other main lines and numerous rural branch lines, many of which closed in the 1930s. The Beeching Axe of the 1960s also closed the Great Central Main Line north of Aylesbury in 1966. The county was also one of the few counties to gain a motorway in the 1950s when the M1 motorway opened its entire section through Buckinghamshire in 1959. Air travel is the only major mode of transport not to have a presence in Buckinghamshire- although Heathrow Airport in Greater London is less than a mile from the southern border of the two counties.
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